Listaan dagiti pamilia ti pagsasao

Naggapo idiay Ilokano Wikipedia, ti nawaya nga ensiklopedia
(Naibaw-ing manipud iti Dagiti pamilia dagiti pagsasao)
Lumaktaw idiay: pagdaliasatan, biruken

Nangruna a Pamilia[urnosen | urnosen ti taudan]

Pamilia dagiti Pagsasao[urnosen | urnosen ti taudan]

Africa ken Abagatan-Laud ti Asia[urnosen | urnosen ti taudan]

  1. Afro-Asiatica (maamoan idi nga Hamito-Semitic)
  2. Niger-Congo
  3. Nilo-Saharan
  4. Khoisan
  5. Tuu

Ewropa, ken amianan, laud, ken Abagatan ti Asia[urnosen | urnosen ti taudan]

  1. Indo-Ewropeo
  2. Dravidiano
  3. Kawkasiko
  4. Hurro-Urartian pagsasao (extinct, nalabit nga ababagi iti Kawkasiko nga Akinaminan-Daya)
  5. Altaiko
  6. Ural
  7. Yukaghir
  8. Chukotko-Kamchatkan
  9. Yeniseian
  10. Andaman

Daya ti Asia, Abagatan-daya ti Asia ken iti Pacifico[urnosen | urnosen ti taudan]

  1. Pagsasao nga Awstro-Asiatiko
  2. Pagsasao nga Awstronesiano
  3. Pagsasao a Buyeo
  4. Hmong-Mien
  5. Pagsasao a Hapones
  6. Pagsasao a Sino-Tibetano
  7. Pagsasao a Tai-Kadai

Pagsasao iti Papua[urnosen | urnosen ti taudan]

  1. Baining pagsasao
  2. Border pagsasao
  3. Central Solomons pagsasao
  4. East Bird's Head-Sentani pagsasao
  5. Eastern Trans-Fly pagsasao (one in Australia)
  6. East Geelvink Bay pagsasao
  7. Lakes Plain pagsasao (upper Mamberamo River)
  8. Left May-Kwomtari pagsasao
  9. Mairasi pagsasao
  10. Nimboran pagsasao
  11. North Bougainville pagsasao
  12. Piawi pagsasao
  13. Ramu-Lower Sepik pagsasao
  14. Senagi pagsasao
  15. Sepik pagsasao
  16. Skou pagsasao
  17. South Bougainville pagsasao
  18. South-Central Papuan pagsasao
  19. Tor-Kwerba pagsasao
  20. Torricelli pagsasao
  21. West Papuan pagsasao
  22. Yuat pagsasao

Pagsasao dagiti Patneng nga Australiano[urnosen | urnosen ti taudan]

  1. Bunaban pagsasao
  2. Daly pagsasao
  3. Limilngan pagsasao
  4. Djeragan pagsasao
  5. Nyulnyulan pagsasao
  6. Wororan pagsasao
  7. Mindi pagsasao
  8. Arnhem Land pagsasao (3 families and 2 isolates)
  9. Gunwinyguan pagsasao
  10. Pama-Nyungan pagsasao

Amianan nga America[urnosen | urnosen ti taudan]

Pannakaiwaras dagiti pamilia ti pagsasao ken dagiti putong a pagsasao iti amianan ti Meksiko idi immuna a panagidennet.
Basaen ti kangrunaan nga artikulo, Pagsasao ti Nabangunan nga Amerikano
  1. Algic pagsasao (incl. Algonquian pagsasao) (29)
  2. Alsean pagsasao (2)
  3. Caddoan pagsasao (5)
  4. Chimakuan pagsasao (2)
  5. Chinookan pagsasao (3)
  6. Chumashan pagsasao (6)
  7. Comecrudan pagsasao (3)
  8. Coosan pagsasao (2)
  9. Eskimo-Aleut pagsasao (7)
  10. Guacurian pagsasao (a.k.a. Waikurian) (8)
  11. Iroquoian pagsasao (11)
  12. Kalapuyan pagsasao (3)
  13. Kiowa-Tanoan pagsasao (7)
  14. Maiduan pagsasao (4)
  15. Mayan pagsasao (North America & Central America) (31)
  16. Muskogean pagsasao (6)
  17. Na-Dené pagsasao (40)
  18. Oto-Manguean pagsasao (North America & Central America) (27)
  19. Palaihnihan pagsasao (2)
  20. Plateau Penutian pagsasao (a.k.a. Shahapwailutan) (4)
  21. Pomoan pagsasao (7)
  22. Salishan pagsasao (23)
  23. Shastan pagsasao (4)
  24. Siouan pagsasao (16)
  25. Tequistlatecan pagsasao (3)
  26. Totonacan pagsasao (2)
  27. Tsimshian pagsasao (2)
  28. Utian pagsasao (12)
  29. Uto-Aztecan pagsasao (31)
  30. Wakashan pagsasao (6)
  31. Wintuan pagsasao (4)
  32. Yokutsan pagsasao (3)
  33. Yukian pagsasao (2)
  34. Yuman-Cochimí pagsasao (11)

Central America and South America[urnosen | urnosen ti taudan]

Basaen ti kangrunaan nga artikulo, Pagsasao ti Nabangunan nga Amerikano
  1. Alacalufan pagsasao (South America) (2)
  2. Algic pagsasao (North American & Central America) (29)
  3. Arauan pagsasao (South America) (8)
  4. Araucanian pagsasao (South America) (2)
  5. Arawakan pagsasao (South America, Caribbean) (73)
  6. Arutani-Sape pagsasao (South America) (2)
  7. Aymaran pagsasao (South America) (3)
  8. Barbacoan pagsasao (South America) (7)
  9. Cahuapanan pagsasao (South America) (2)
  10. Carib pagsasao (South America) (29)
  11. Chapacura-Wanham pagsasao (South America) (5)
  12. Chibchan pagsasao (Central America & South America) (22)
  13. Choco pagsasao (South America) (10)
  14. Chon pagsasao (South America) (2)
  15. Comecrudan pagsasao (North America & Central America) (3)
  16. Guacurian pagsasao (a.k.a. Waikurian) (8)
  17. Harakmbet pagsasao (South America) (2)
  18. Jicaquean pagsasao (Central America)
  19. Jivaroan pagsasao (South America) (4)
  20. Katukinan pagsasao (South America) (3)
  21. Lencan pagsasao (Central America)
  22. Lule-Vilela pagsasao (South America) (1)
  23. Macro-Ge pagsasao (South America) (32)
  24. Maku pagsasao (South America) (6)
  25. Mascoian pagsasao (South America) (5)
  26. Mataco-Guaicuru pagsasao (South America) (11)
  27. Mayan pagsasao (Central America) (31)
  28. Misumalpan pagsasao (Central America)
  29. Mixe-Zoquean pagsasao (Central America) (19)
  30. Mosetenan pagsasao (South America) (1)
  31. Mura pagsasao (South America) (1)
  32. Na-Dené pagsasao (North America & Central America) (40)
  33. Nambiquaran pagsasao (South America) (5)
  34. Oto-Manguean pagsasao (North America & Central America) (27)
  35. Paezan pagsasao (South America) (1)
  36. Panoan pagsasao (South America) (30)
  37. Peba-Yaguan pagsasao (South America) (2)
  38. Quechuan pagsasao (South America) (46)
  39. Salivan pagsasao (South America) (2)
  40. Tacanan pagsasao (South America) (6)
  41. Tequistlatecan pagsasao (Central America) (3)
  42. Totonacan pagsasao (Central America) (2)
  43. Tucanoan pagsasao (South America) (25)
  44. Tupi pagsasao (South America) (70)
  45. Uru-Chipaya pagsasao (South America) (2)
  46. Uto-Aztecan pagsasao (North America & Central America) (31)
  47. Witotoan pagsasao (South America) (6)
  48. Xincan pagsasao (Central America)
  49. Yanomam pagsasao (South America) (4)
  50. Yuman-Cochimi pagsasao (North America & Central America) (11)
  51. Zamucoan pagsasao (South America) (2)
  52. Zaparoan pagsasao (South America) (7)

Putong a Pagsasao[urnosen | urnosen ti taudan]

Akintengga ken Abagatan nga Amerika[urnosen | urnosen ti taudan]

  1. Aikaná (Brazil: Rondônia)
  2. Andoque (Colombia, Peru)
  3. Betoi (Colombia)
  4. Camsá (Colombia)
  5. Canichana (Bolivia)
  6. Cayubaba (Bolivia)
  7. Cofán (Colombia, Ecuador)
  8. Cuitlatec (Mexico: Guerrero) [extinct]
  9. Huaorani (a.k.a. Sabela, Waorani, Waodani) (Ecuador, Peru)
  10. Huave (Mexico: Oaxaca)
  11. Irantxe (Brazil: Mato Grosso)
  12. Itonama (Bolivia)
  13. Jotí (Venezuela)
  14. Koayá (Brazil: Rondônia)
  15. Mapudungun (Chile, Argentina)
  16. Movima (Bolivia)
  17. Munichi (Peru)
  18. Nambiquaran (Brazil: Mato Grosso)
  19. Omurano (Peru)
  20. Otí (Brazil: São Paulo) [extinct]
  21. Pankararú (Brazil: Pernambuco)
  22. Puelche (Chile)
  23. Puinave (Colombia)
  24. Puquina (Bolivia) [extinct]
  25. Seri (Mexico: Sonora)
  26. Tarascan (a.k.a. Purépecha) (Mexico: Michoacán)
  27. Taushiro (Peru)
  28. Tequiraca (Peru)
  29. Ticuna (Colombia, Peru, Brazil)
  30. Warao (Guyana, Surinam, Venezuela)
  31. Yámana (a.k.a Yagan) (Chile)
  32. Yuracare (Bolivia)
  33. Yuri (Colombia, Brazil)
  34. Yurumanguí (Colombia)

Amianan nga America[urnosen | urnosen ti taudan]

  1. Chimariko (US: California)
  2. Chitimacha (US: Lousiania)
  3. Coahuilteco (US: Texas, northeast Mexico)
  4. Esselen (US: California)
  5. Haida (Canada: British Columbia; US: Alaska)
  6. Karankawa (US: Texas)
  7. Karok (a.k.a. Karuk) (US: California)
  8. Keres (US: New Mexico)
  9. Kootenai (Canada: British Columbia; US: Idaho, Montana)
  10. Natchez (US: Mississippi, Louisiana) (sometimes linked to Muskogean)
  11. Salinan (US: California)
  12. Siuslaw (US: Oregon)
  13. Takelma (US: Oregon)
  14. Timucua (US: Florida, Georgia)
  15. Tonkawa (US: Texas)
  16. Tunica (US: Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas)
  17. Washo (US: California, Nevada)
  18. Yana (US: California)
  19. Yuchi (US: Georgia, Oklahoma)
  20. Zuni (a.k.a. Shiwi) (US: New Mexico)

Australia[urnosen | urnosen ti taudan]

  1. Enindhilyagwa (AKA Andilyaugwa, Anindilyakwa)
  2. Laragiya
  3. Minkin [extinct; perhaps a member of Yiwaidjan or Tankic]
  4. Ngurmbur (perhaps a member of Macro-Pama-Nyungan)
  5. Tiwi (Melville and Bathurst Islands)

Baro a Guinea[urnosen | urnosen ti taudan]

  1. Abinomn (Baso, Foia) (north Irian)
  2. Anêm (New Britain)
  3. Ata (Pele-Ata, Wasi) (New Britain)
  4. Busa (Sandaun)
  5. Isirawa (north Irian)
  6. Kol (New Britain)
  7. Kuot (Panaras) (New Ireland)
  8. Massep
  9. Kwotari-Baibai (a.k.a. Pyu)
  10. Sulka (New Britain)
  11. Taiap (Gapun) (Sepik)
  12. Yalë (Nagatman) (Sandaun)
  13. Yawa (Geelvink Bay)
  14. Yélî Dnye (Yele) (Rennell Island)
  15. Yuri (Karkar) (Sandaun)

Asia[urnosen | urnosen ti taudan]

  1. Ainu pagsasao or pagsasao (Russia, Japan) (like Arabic or Japanese, the diversity within Ainu is large enough that some consider it to be perhaps up to a dozen pagsasao while others consider it a single pagsasao with high dialectal diversity)
  2. Burushaski (Pakistan, India) (sometimes linked to Yeniseian)
  3. Kalto or Nahali (India) (sometimes linked to Munda)
  4. Korean (North & South Korea, China, USA) (sometimes linked to Altaic)
  5. Nivkh or Gilyak (Russia) (sometimes linked to Chukchi-Kamchatkan)
  6. Sumerian (Iraq) [extinct]
  7. Elamite (Iran) [extinct] (sometimes linked to Dravidian)
  8. Hattic (Turkey) [extinct] (sometimes linked to Northwest Caucasian)

Africa[urnosen | urnosen ti taudan]

  1. Hadza (Tanzania)
  2. Sandawe (Tanzania)
  3. Juu (Angola, Botswana, Namibia)
  4. ?Qhôã (Botswana) (may be related to Juu)

(all sometimes included under Khoisan)

Ewropa[urnosen | urnosen ti taudan]

  1. Basko (Espania, Pransia) (related to naungaw nga Akuitanio)
  2. Etrusko (Italia) [naungaw; paset ti nasakian a bassit a pamilia a Tyrrheniano]

Di-naidasig a pagsasao[urnosen | urnosen ti taudan]

Pagsasao are considered unclassified either because, for one reason or another, little effort has been made to compare them with other pagsasao, or, more commonly, because they are too poorly documented to permit reliable classification. Most such pagsasao are extinct and most likely will never be known well enough to classify.

Europe[urnosen | urnosen ti taudan]

  1. Iberian (Spain) [extinct]
  2. Tartessian (Spain, Portugal) [extinct]

Africa[urnosen | urnosen ti taudan]

  1. Shabo
  2. Meroitic [extinct]

Asia[urnosen | urnosen ti taudan]

  1. Quti [extinct]
  2. Kaskian [extinct]
  3. Cimmerian [extinct]

Australia[urnosen | urnosen ti taudan]

  1. Tasmanian pagsasao [extinct]

South America[urnosen | urnosen ti taudan]

  1. Baenan (Brazil) [extinct]
  2. Culle (Peru) [extinct]
  3. Cunza (Chile, Bolivia, Argentina) [extinct]
  4. Gamela (Brazil: Maranhão) [extinct]
  5. Gorgotoqui (Bolivia) [extinct]
  6. Huamoé (Brazil: Pernambuco) [extinct]
  7. Kukurá (Brazil: Mato Grosso) [extinct]
  8. Natú (Brazil: Pernambuco) [extinct]
  9. Tarairiú (Brazil: Rio Grande do Norte)
  10. Tuxá (Brazil: Bahia, Pernambuco) [extinct]
  11. Xokó (Brazil: Alagoas, Pernambuco) [extinct]
  12. Xukurú (Brazil: Pernambuco, Paraíba) [extinct]
  13. Yurumanguí (Colombia) [extinct]

North America[urnosen | urnosen ti taudan]

  1. Adai (US: Louisiana, Texas) [extinct]
  2. Alagüilac (Guatemala)
  3. Aranama-Tamique (US: Texas) [extinct]
  4. Atakapa (US: Louisiana, Texas) [extinct]
  5. Beothuk (Canada: Newfoundland) [extinct]
  6. Calusa (US: Florida) [extinct]
  7. Cayuse (US: Oregon, Washington) [extinct]
  8. Cotoname (northeast Mexico; US: Texas) [extinct]
  9. Maratino (northeastern Mexico) [extinct]
  10. Naolan (Mexico: Tamaulipas) [extinct]
  11. Quinigua (northeast Mexico) [extinct]
  12. Solano (northeast Mexico; US: Texas) [extinct]

Pagsasao iti ima[urnosen | urnosen ti taudan]

See also List of sign pagsasao.

Although deaf sign pagsasaos have emerged naturally in deaf communities alongside or among spoken pagsasao, they are unrelated to spoken pagsasao and have different grammatical structures at their core. A group of sign "pagsasao" known as manually coded pagsasaos are more properly understood as signed modes of spoken pagsasao, and therefore belong to the pagsasao family of the spoken pagsasao. One example of such a signed pagsasao is Warlpiri Sign Pagsasao, which belongs to the family of Ngarrkic pagsasao.

There has been very little historical linguistic research on sign pagsasao, and few attempts to determine genetic relationships between sign pagsasao, other than simple comparison of lexical data and some discussion about whether certain sign pagsasao are dialects of a pagsasao or pagsasao of a family. Pagsasao may be spread through migration, through the establishment of deaf schools (often by foreign-trained educators), or due to political domination.

Pagsasao contact is common, making clear family classifications difficult ? it is often unclear whether lexical similarity is due to borrowing or a common parent pagsasao. Contact occurs between sign pagsasao, between signed and spoken pagsasao (Contact Sign), and between sign pagsasao and gestural systems used by the broader community. One author has speculated that Adamorobe Sign Pagsasao may be related to the "gestural trade jargon used in the markets throughout West Africa", in vocabulary and areal features including prosody and phonetics.

Kriolio a pagsasao, pidgin, nalaok a pagsasao, ken pagsasao a pannegosio[urnosen | urnosen ti taudan]

Kasilpo[urnosen | urnosen ti taudan]

Bibliografia[urnosen | urnosen ti taudan]

  • Boas, Franz. (1911). Handbook of American Indian pagsasao (Vol. 1). Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 40. Washington: Government Print Office (Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology).
  • Boas, Franz. (1922). Handbook of American Indian pagsasao (Vol. 2). Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 40. Washington: Government Print Office (Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology).
  • Boas, Franz. (1933). Handbook of American Indian pagsasao (Vol. 3). Native American legal materials collection, title 1227. Glückstadt: J.J. Augustin.
  • Campbell, Lyle. (1997). American Indian pagsasao: The historical linguistics of Native America. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509427-1.
  • Campbell, Lyle; & Mithun, Marianne (Eds.). (1979). The pagsasao of native America: Historical and comparative assessment. Austin: University of Texas Press.
  • Goddard, Ives (Ed.). (1996). Pagsasao. Handbook of North American Indians (W. C. Sturtevant, General Ed.) (Vol. 17). Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution. ISBN 0-1604-8774-9.
  • Goddard, Ives. (1999). Native pagsasao and pagsasao families of North America (rev. and enlarged ed. with additions and corrections). [Map]. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press (Smithsonian Institute). (Updated version of the map in Goddard 1996). ISBN 0-8032-9271-6.
  • Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (Ed.). (2005). Ethnologue: Pagsasao of the world (15th ed.). Dallas, TX: SIL International. ISBN 1-55671-159-X. (Online version: http://www.ethnologue.com).
  • Greenberg, Joseph H. (1966). The Pagsasao of Africa (2nd ed.). Bloomington: Indiana University.
  • Mithun, Marianne. (1999). The pagsasao of Native North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23228-7 (hbk); ISBN 0-521-29875-X.
  • Ross, Malcom. (2005). Pronouns as a preliminary diagnostic for grouping Papuan pagsasao. In: Andrew Pawley, Robert Attenborough, Robin Hide and Jack Golson, eds, Papuan pasts: cultural, linguistic and biological histories of Papuan-speaking peoples [1]
  • Ruhlen, Merritt. (1987). A guide to the world's pagsasao. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  • Sturtevant, William C. (Ed.). (1978-present). Handbook of North American Indians (Vol. 1-20). Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution. (Vols. 1-3, 16, 18-20 not yet published).
  • Voegelin, C. F.; & Voegelin, F. M. (1977). Classification and index of the world's pagsasao. New York: Elsevier.