Manilkara

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Manilkara
Cayos pict071.jpg
Sanga ken bunga ti Manilkara jaimiqui ssp. emarginata
Taksonomia urnosen
Pagarian: Plantae
Klado: Tracheophytes
Klado: Angiospermae
Klado: Eudicotidae
Klado: Asterids
Urnos: Ericales
Pamilia: Sapotaceae
Subpamilia: Sapotoideae
Tribu: Sapoteae
Henero: Manilkara
Adans., naikonserba a nagan[1]
Sebbangan-kita
M. kauki
Kapada a nagan
  • Achras L. (linikudan a nagan)[2]
  • Sapota Mill. (sobra a nagan)[3]
  • Stisseria Scop. 1777 ilehitimado a homonimo saan a Stisseria Heist. ex Fabr. 1759 (Apocynaceae)
  • Hornschuchia Spreng.
  • Synarrhena Fisch. & C.A.Mey.
  • Eichleria M.M.Hartog
  • Muriea M.M.Hartog
  • Mahea Pierre ex L.Planch.
  • Northiopsis Kaneh.
  • Shaferodendron Gilly
  • Murianthe (Baill.) Aubrév.
  • Abebaia Baehni
  • Nispero Aubrév.
  • Manilkariopsis (Gilly) Lundell
  • Chiclea Lundell
  • Mopania Lundell

Ti Manilkara ket tihenero dagiti kayo iti pamilia ti Sapotaceae. Adu dagitoy kadagiti tropikal ken semitropikal a lokasion iti Aprika, Madagascar, Asia, Australia, ken Latin nga Amerika, ken dagiti pay nadumaduma nga isla iti Pasipiko ken iti Karibe.[4] Ti asideg a kabagianna ket ti henero ti Pouteria.

Dagiti kayo iti daytoy a henero ket addaan kadagiti makan a bunga, naserbia kayo, ken latex. Dagiti kaaduan nga ammo a sebbangan ket mairaman ti M. bidentata (balatá), M. chicle (chicle) ken M. zapota (sapodilla). Ti M. hexandra ket ti kayarigan a sabong ti Probinsia ti Prachuap Khiri Khan iti Tailandia, nga idiay ket ammo a kas rayan. Ti M. obovata ket makibinningay iti bernakular a nagan iti Ingles iti African pear iti sabali pay a kompleto a sabali a sebbangan, ti Dacryodes edulis, ken dagitoy ket saan koma a maiyallilaw iti Baillonella toxisperma, nga ammo met iti kapadpada nagan iti, African pearwood iti Ingles.

Ti kadawyan a nagan iti Manilkara, ket naala manipud iti manil-kara, ti maysa a bernakular a nagan para iti M. kauki iti Malayalam.[5]

Dagiti kayo a Manilkara ket masansanda a signipikante, wenno dominante a sebbangan kadagiti patnengda nga ekosistema, kas ti namaga a kankanayon a berde a bakbakir ti Daya a Deccan, premontane a nabasa a tropikal a bakbakir ti Tengnga nga Amerika, wenno kakauyog iti Cynometra, iti Nailian a Parke ti Arabuko Sokoke.

Ti bunga ti Manilkara ket maysa nangruna a makan para kadagiti naduamduma a frugivoro, a naipangpangruna kadagiti billit. Ti nalabbasit a paniki (Stenoderma rufum) ket ti kangrunaan – ken kenmabalina ati kaikaisuna nga agiwarwaras iti bukel iti M. bidentata kadagiti parte ti Karibe. Ti Tuckerella xiamenensis, ti maysa a sebbangan ti peacock mite, ket naipalawag idi manipud iti kayo a sapodilla.

Maipangta dagiti nadumaduma a sebbangan gapu iti nakaro a panaggundaway ken pannakadadael iti habitat. Ti M. gonavensis ti Haiti ken M. spectabilis ti Costa Rica ket ganganidan a maungaw.

Dagiti napili a sebbangan[urnosen | urnosen ti taudan]

Dagitoy a napil a sebbangan ket dagiti nairaman iti henero ti Manilkara:[6][7][8]

Manilkara adolfo-friederici (Engl. & K.Krause) H.J.Lam
Manilkara altissima (Engl.) H.J.Lam
Manilkara amazonica (Huber) Standl.
Manilkara angolensis Lecomte ex Pellegr.
Manilkara argentea Pierre ex Dubard
Manilkara aubrevillei Sillans
Manilkara balata (Aubl.) Dubard
Manilkara bella Monach.
Manilkara bequaertii (De Wild.) H.J.Lam
Manilkara bidentata (A.DC.) A.Chev.balatá, ausubo, bulletwood, massaranduba, cow-tree wenno purple-heart
Manilkara boivinii Aubrév.
Manilkara bojeri (A.DC.) H.J.Lam
Manilkara bolivarensis T.D.Penn.
Manilkara breviloba Gilly
Manilkara butugi Chiov.
Manilkara calcicola (Pittier) Gilly
Manilkara calderonii Gilly
Manilkara calophylloides H.J.Lam
Manilkara capuronii Aubrév.
Manilkara casteelsii (De Wild.) H.J.Lam
Manilkara cavalcantei Pires & Rodrigues ex T.D.Penn.
Manilkara chicle (Pittier) Gilly – chicle
Manilkara concolor (Harv. ex C.H.Wr.) Gerstn.
Manilkara celebica H.J.Lam
Manilkara conzattii Gilly
Manilkara cordifolia P.Royen
Manilkara costata Dubard
Manilkara cuneifolia Dubard
Manilkara dardanoi Ducke
Manilkara darienensis (Pittier) Standl.
Manilkara dawei (Stapf) Chiov.
Manilkara decrescens T.D.Penn
Manilkara discolor (Sond.) J.H.Hemsl.
Manilkara dissecta Dubard
Manilkara doeringii (Engl. & K.Krause) H.J.Lam
Manilkara duckei Monach.
Manilkara dukensis (Engl. & K.Krause) H.J.Lam
Manilkara duplicata (Sessé & Moc.) Dubard
Manilkara eickii (Engl.) H.J.Lam
Manilkara elata (Allemão ex Miq.) Monach.
Manilkara excelsa (Ducke) Standl.
Manilkara excisa (Urb.) H.J.Lam
Manilkara fasciculata (Warb.) H.J.Lam & Maas Geester.
Manilkara fischeri (Engl.) H.J.Lam
Manilkara floribunda (Mart.) Dubard
Manilkara fouilloyana Aubrév. & Pellegr.
Manilkara frondosa (Hiern) H.J.Lam
Manilkara gaumeri Gilly
Manilkara gonavensis (Urb. & Ekman) Gilly ex Cronquist
Manilkara grisebachii (Pierre) Dubard
Manilkara guillotii (Hochr.) H.J.Lam
Manilkara hexandra (Roxb.) Dubardpalai, palu wenno rayan
Manilkara hoshinoi (Kaneh.) P.Royen
Manilkara howardii Gilly
Manilkara huberi (Ducke) A.Chev.
Manilkara ilendensis (Engl.) H.J.Lam
Manilkara inundata (Ducke) Ducke ex Monach.
Manilkara jaimiqui (C.Wright) Dubard – wild dilly
Manilkara kanosiensis H.J.Lam & B.Meeusetorem wenno sawai
Manilkara kauki (L.) Dubardcaqui wenno wongi
Manilkara koechlinii Aubrév. & Pellegr.
Manilkara kribensis (Engl.) H.J.Lam
Manilkara kurziana H.J.Lam & B.Meeuse
Manilkara lacera Dubard
Manilkara laciniata (Lecomte) P.Royen
Manilkara letestui Aubrév. & Pellegr.
Manilkara letouzei Aubrév.
Manilkara littoralis Dubard

Manilkara longiciliata Ducke
Manilkara longifolia (A.DC.) Dubard
Manilkara longistyla (De Wild.) C.M.Evrard
Manilkara lososiana Kenfack & Ewango
Manilkara mabokeensis Aubrév.
Manilkara macaulayae (Hutch. & Corbishly) H.J.Lam
Manilkara maclaudii Pierre ex Lecomte
Manilkara matanou Aubrév. & Pellegr.
Manilkara maxima T.D.Penn
Manilkara mayarensis (Ekman ex Urb.) Cronquist
Manilkara menyhartii (Engl.) H.J.Lam
Manilkara meridionalis Gilly
Manilkara microphylla Aubrév. & Pellegr.
Manilkara mochisia (Bak.) Dubard
Manilkara multifida T.D.Penn
Manilkara multinervis Dubard
Manilkara napali P.Royen
Manilkara natalensis Dubard
Manilkara nato-lahyensis P.Royen
Manilkara nicholsonii A.E.van Wyk
Manilkara nitida (Sessé & Moc.) Dubard
Manilkara obovata (Sabine & G.Don) J.H.Hemsl. – African pear
Manilkara pancheri Dubard
Manilkara paraensis (Huber) Standl.
Manilkara pleeana (Pierre ex Baill.) Cronquist
Manilkara pellegriniana Tisserant & Sillans
Manilkara perrieri Aubrév.
Manilkara pobeguinii Pierre ex Dubard
Manilkara propinqua (S.Moore) H.J.Lam
Manilkara pubicarpa Monach.
Manilkara remotifolia Pierre ex Dubard
Manilkara rojasii Gilly
Manilkara roxburghiana (Wight) Dubard
Manilkara rufula (Miq.) H.J.Lam
Manilkara sahafarensis Aubrév.
Manilkara salzmannii (A.DC.) H.J.Lam
Manilkara samoensis H.J.Lam & B.Meeuse
Manilkara schweinfurthii Dubard
Manilkara seretii (De Wild.) H.J.Lam
Manilkara sideroxylon (Hook.) Dubard
Manilkara siqueiraei Ducke
Manilkara smithiana H.J.Lam & Maas Geester.
Manilkara sohihy Aubrév.
Manilkara spectabilis (Pittier) Standl.
Manilkara spiculosa (Hutch. & Corbishly) H.J.Lam
Manilkara staminodella Gilly
Manilkara striata Gilly
Manilkara suarezensis Aubrév.
Manilkara subsericea (Mart.) Dubard
Manilkara sulcata Dubard
Manilkara surinamensis (Miq.) Dubard
Manilkara sylvestris Aubrév. & Pellegr.
Manilkara tabogaensis Gilly
Manilkara tampoloensis Aubrév.
Manilkara teysmanni Dubard
Manilkara thouvenotii (Lecomte) P.Royen
Manilkara triflora (Allemão) Monach.
Manilkara udoido Kaneh.
Manilkara umbraculigera (Hutch. & Corbishly) H.J.Lam
Manilkara valenzuelana (A.Rich.) T.D.Penn.
Manilkara vitiensis (H.J.Lam & v.Olden) B.Meeuse
Manilkara welwitschii Dubard
Manilkara williamsii Standl.
Manilkara wrightiana (Pierre) Dubard
Manilkara zanzibarensis Dubard
Manilkara zapota (L.) P.Royen – sapodilla, sapota, sapoti wenno dilly (Bahamas), naseberry (Caribbean), chico, chiku, ciku, snake fruit, níspero, nipero, mespel
Manilkara zenkeri Lecomte ex Aubrév. & Pellegr.

Ti mula a Manilkara zapota iti Tamil Nadu, India

Dagiti nagibasaran[urnosen | urnosen ti taudan]

  1. ^ a b Fam. Pl. (Adanson) 2: 166, 574. 1763 [Jul-Aug 1763] "Plant Name Details for Genus Manilkara". IPNI. Naala idi Disiembre 23, 2009. Nomenclatural Notes: nom. cons. Type Name: M. kauki (Linnaeus) Dubard (Mimusops kauki Linnaeus) (typ. cons.) ; basionimo ti: Sapotaceae Mimusops subgen. Manilkara (Adans.) Pierre & Urb., Symb. Antill. (Urban). 5: 162. 1904
  2. ^ GRIN (Marso 31, 2009). "Achras information from NPGS/GRIN". Taxonomy for Plants. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland: USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Naala idi Disiembre 23, 2009. Comment: a rejected (nom. rej.), heterotipiko a sinonimo (Vienna ICBN Art. 14.4 & App. III) of Manilkara Adans., nom. cons.
  3. ^ Gard. Dict. Abr., ed. 4. [unpaged]. 1754 [28 Jan 1754] "Plant Name Details for Genus Sapota". IPNI. Naala idi Disiembre 23, 2009. Nomenclatural Notes: nom. illeg. nom. superfl. Achras Linnaeus (1753).
  4. ^ Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  5. ^ Quattrocchi, Umberto (2000). CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names. III. CRC Press. p. 1609. ISBN 978-0-8493-2677-6.
  6. ^ GRIN. "Species in GRIN for genus Manilkara". Taxonomy for Plants. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland: USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Naala idi Disiembre 23, 2009.
  7. ^ M. obovata listed in Mabberley's The Plant Book and also at Encyclopedia of Life
  8. ^ "Query Results for Genus Manilkara". IPNI. Naala idi Disiembre 24, 2009.

Dagiti akinruar a silpo[urnosen | urnosen ti taudan]

Midia a mainaig iti Manilkara iti Wikimedia Commons
Datos a mainaig iti Manilkara iti Wikispecies