Subkontinente Indiano

Manipud iti Wikipedia, ti nawaya nga ensiklopedia
(Naibaw-ing manipud iti Subkontinente)
Lumaktaw idiay: pagdaliasatan, agbiruk
Subkontinente Indiano
Indian subcontinent (orthographic projection).png
Kalawa 4.4 a riwriw km2 (1.7 a riwriw mi²)
Populasion ~1.7 bilion
Nagan dagiti umili Subkontinental
Pagpagilian India
Pakistan
Nepal
Butan
Myanmar
Banglades
Sri Lanka
Maldibas

Ti subkontinente Indiano wenno ti subkontinente ket ti akin-abagatan a rehion ti Asia, ken kaaduan a mabirukan idiay Plata Indiano ken mapmapan nga agpaabagatan iti Taaw Indiano. Dagiti panangipalawag ti gay-at ti subkontinente ti Indiano ket aggigiddiat ngem kadawyan a mairaman dagiti bugas a daga ti India, Pakistan, ken Banglades;[1] Ti Sri Lanka, Nepal ken Butan ket masansan pay a mairaman dagitoy. Ti rehion ket mangiraman ti nawatiwat a teritorio dagiti sabali a pagilian ken tinawtawagan babaen dagiti nadumaduma a bilang ti nagnagan a mairaman ti Abagatan nga Asia, ti nagan nga umad-adu a dumaydayeg.[2][3][4]

Nomenklatura[urnosen | urnosen ti taudan]

Ti rehion ket nadumaduma a nanagananen a kas "India" (ti sakbay ti moderno a kapanunotan), ti Indian a Subkontinente (ti termino a kadawyan a naus-usar iti Britaniko nga Imperio ken dagiti simmaruno iti daytoy)[5] ken ti Abagatan nga Asia.[4][6] Urayno dagiti termino iti "Indiano a subkontinente" ken ti "Abagatan nga Asia" ket kadawyan a naipagsisinnukat,[7] adda met dagiti dadduma nga akademiko nga agtengtenggel a ti termino ti "Abagatan nga Asia" ket isu ti adu-adu a maus-usar idiay Europa ken Amianan nga Amerika.[8][9] Segun dagiti historiador a ni Sugata Bose ken ni Ayesha Jalal, ti Indiano a Subkontinente ket nagbalinen a naammuan a kas ti Abagatan nga Asia "iti kinaud-udi ket neutral a panagibagbaga."[2] Ti Indolohista a ni Ronald B. Inden ket nangisupsuppiat a ti panagusar iti termino ti "Abagatan nga Asia" ket umad-adun gapu ta nalawlawag a mangilasin ti rehion manipud ti Daya nga Asia.[3]

Ti BBC, ken dagiti dadduma pay nga akademiko a taudan, ket mangibagbaga kadagiti rehion a kas ti "Asiano a Subkontinente".[10][11] Adda met dagiti akademiko a nagay-ayat iti panagusar iti termino ti Abagatan nga Asia a Subkontinente.[12][13] Ti polieto nga inpablaak babaen ti Departamento ti Estado ti Estados Unidos idi 1959 ket inramanna ti Apganistan, Ceylon (manipud idi 1972 ket ti Sri Lanka), India, Nepal, ken Pakistan (mairaman pay ti Daya a Pakistan, manipud idi 1971 ket ti Banglades) a kas paset ti "Subkontinente ti Abagatan nga Asia".[14] Kadagiti amin a panagdumaduma ti kinaudi nga – Abagatan nga Asia – ket isun ti nagbalin a kaaduan a naus-usar kalpasan idi naampon babaen dagiti moderno a gobierno a kas ti administratibo a pannakaidasig. Adu kadagiti eskolar a nagay-ayat pay iti termino.[4]

Sakop[urnosen | urnosen ti taudan]

Babaen iti naikabil iti diksionario, to termino ti subkontinente ket mangibagbaga iiti "kaada iti naisangayan a heograpikal wenno politikal a kinawaya" manipud ti dadduma a paset ti kontinente, wenno "ti nawatiwat ken ad-adu wenno basbassit a bukod a nailaon a subdibision iti kontinente"[15][16][17] Ti termino ket saan pay a nalawag a mangibaga ti "kaada iti naisangayan a heograpiko wenno politikal a knawaya" manipud ti amin a paset ti kontinente.[18]

Ti termino ti Ingles ket agtultuloy a kaaduan a mangibagbaga iti Indiano a subkontinente.[19][20] Iti pisikal a heograpia, daytoy ket ti peninsula a rehion idiay abagatan-sentral nga Asia, a kaasping iti diamante a naisina babaen ti Himalaya iti amianan, ti Hindu Kush iti laud, ken ti Arakanese iti daya,[21] ken gumay-at nga agpaabagatan idiay Taaw Indiano a kakuyog iti Baybay Arabiano iti abagatan a laud ken ti Luek ti Bengal iti abagatan a daya.[1][22] Kaaduan iti daytoy a rehion ket adda iti Plata Indiano ken naisalumina manipud ti amin a paset ti Asia babaen dagiti lapped ti bantay.[23][24]

Ti Plata Indiano, bayat a mangiraman iti kaaduan ti rehion, ket mangporma ti masa ti daga manipud ti Himalaya iti paset ti labneng iti sirok ti Taaw Indiano, a mairaman dagiti paset ti Abagatan a Tsina, ken dagiti pay kabambantayan ti Kuen Lun ken Karakoram,[25][26][27] ken gumay-at idiay ngem saan a mairaman ti Ladakh, Kohistan, ti kabambantayan ti Hindu Kush ken ti Balochistan.[28][29][30]

Panangipalawag[urnosen | urnosen ti taudan]

No matawagan iti Indiano a subkontinente wenno Abagatan nga Asia, ti panangipalawag ti heograpikal a gay-at iti daytoy a rehion ket agdumaduma. Iti heopolitiko, daytoy ket nangporma ti sibubukel a teritorio ti Kalatakan nga India,[6][31] ken itan ket kadawyan a buklen dagiti pagilian ti India, Pakistan, ken Banglades.[1] Sakbay idi 1947, dagiti tallo a pagilian ket historikal a naitipon ken nangbukel ti Britaniko nga India. Daytoy ket gangani pay a kankanayon a mangiraman ti Nepal, Butan, ken ti isla a pagilian ti Sri Lanka ken mabalin pay a mairaman ti Apganistan ken ti isla apagilain ti Maldibas.[32] Segun ti antropologo a ni John R. Lukacs, "Ti Subkontinente Indiano ket sakupenna ti nangruna a masa ti daga ti Abagatan nga Asia."[33] bayat a segun ti politikala propesor a ni Tatu Vanhanen, "Dagiti pito a pagilian ti Abagatan nga Asia ket heograpiko a buklen ti kompakto a rehion iti likmut ti Subkontinente Indiano".[34]

Ti panagusar pay ti nalawlawa a pannakaipalawagn – no mairaman ti India, Pakistan, Bangladeh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Butan ken ti Maldibas a kas dagiti konstituente a pagilian – ti Indiano a subkontinente ket sakupenna ti agarup a 4.4 a riwriw a km² (1.7 a riwriw a mi²), nga agrup daytoy iti 10% iti kontinente ti Asia wenno 3.3% iti kalawa ti rabaw ti daga iti lubong.[35][36] iti amian, daytoy ket mangbukel para iti agarup a 45% iti populasion ti Asia (wenno sumurok a 25% iti populasion ti lubong) ken pagtaengan dagiti adu a kita ti tattao.[35][37][38]

Dagiti nagibasaran[urnosen | urnosen ti taudan]

  1. ^ a b c "Indian subcontinent". New Oxford Dictionary of English (ISBN 0-19-860441-6) New York: Oxford University Press, 2001; p. 929: "ti paset ti Asia iti abagatan ti Himalaya a mangporma ti peninsula a gumay-at iti Taaw Indiano a nagbaetan ti Baybay Arabiano ken ti Luek ti Bengal. Daytoy ket naipakasaritaan a mangporma ti sibubukel a teritorio ti Kalatakan nga India, ti rehion ket nabingingay ita iti nagbaetan ti India, Pakistan ken Banglades."
  2. ^ a b Sugata Bose & Ayesha Jalal, Modern South Asia, pages 3, Routledge, 2004, ISBN 0415307872
  3. ^ a b Ronald B. Inden, Imagining India, page 51, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 2000, ISBN 1850655200
  4. ^ a b c Sushil Mittal and Gene Thursby, Religions of South Asia: An Introduction, page 3, Routledge, 2006, ISBN 9781134593224
  5. ^ John McLeod, The history of India, page 1, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002, ISBN 0-313-31459-4
    Milton Walter Meyer, South Asia: A Short History of the Subcontinent, pages 1, Adams Littlefield, 1976, ISBN 0-8226-0034-X
    Jim Norwine & Alfonso González, The Third World: states of mind and being, pages 209, Taylor & Francis, 1988, ISBN 0-04-910121-8
    Boniface, Brian G.; Christopher P. Cooper (2005). Worldwide destinations: the geography of travel and tourism. Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-7506-5997-0. 
    Judith Schott & Alix Henley, Culture, Religion, and Childbearing in a Multiracial Society, pages 274, Elsevier Health Sciences, 1996, ISBN 0-7506-2050-1
    Raj S. Bhopal, Ethnicity, race, and health in multicultural societies, pages 33, Oxford University Press, 2007, ISBN 0-19-856817-7
    Lucian W. Pye & Mary W. Pye, Asian Power and Politics, pages 133, Harvard University Press, 1985, ISBN 0-674-04979-9
    Mark Juergensmeyer, The Oxford handbook of global religions, pages 465, Oxford University Press US, 2006, ISBN 0-19-513798-1
    Sugata Bose & Ayesha Jalal, Modern South Asia, pages 3, Routledge, 2004, ISBN 0-415-30787-2
  6. ^ a b Kathleen M. Baker and Graham P. Chapman, The Changing Geography of Asia, page 10, Routledge, 2002, ISBN 9781134933846
  7. ^ John McLeod, The history of India, page 1, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002, ISBN 0-313-31459-4
    Milton Walter Meyer, South Asia: A Short History of the Subcontinent, pages 1, Adams Littlefield, 1976, ISBN 0-8226-0034-X
    Jim Norwine & Alfonso González, The Third World: states of mind and being, pages 209, Taylor & Francis, 1988, ISBN 0-04-910121-8
    Boniface, Brian G.; Christopher P. Cooper (2005). Worldwide destinations: the geography of travel and tourism. Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-7506-5997-0. 
    Judith Schott & Alix Henley, Culture, Religion, and Childbearing in a Multiracial Society, pages 274, Elsevier Health Sciences, 1996, ISBN 0-7506-2050-1
    Raj S. Bhopal, Ethnicity, race, and health in multicultural societies, pages 33, Oxford University Press, 2007, ISBN 0-19-856817-7
    Lucian W. Pye & Mary W. Pye, Asian Power and Politics, pages 133, Harvard University Press, 1985, ISBN 0-674-04979-9
    Mark Juergensmeyer, The Oxford handbook of global religions, pages 465, Oxford University Press US, 2006, ISBN 0-19-513798-1
    Sugata Bose & Ayesha Jalal, Modern South Asia, pages 3, Routledge, 2004, ISBN 0-415-30787-2
    Shiv R. Jhawar, Building a Noble World, page 39, Noble World Foundation, 2004, ISBN 9780974919706
    Erika Lee and Judy Yung, Angel Island: Immigrant Gateway to America, page xxiii, Oxford University Press, 2010, ISBN 9780199752799
  8. ^ Judith Schott & Alix Henley, Culture, Religion, and Childbearing in a Multiracial Society, pages 274, Elsevier Health Sciences, 1996, ISBN 0750620501
  9. ^ Raj S. Bhopal, Ethnicity, race, and health in multicultural societies, pages 33, Oxford University Press, 2007, ISBN 0198568177
  10. ^ Lizzie Crouch and Paula McGrath, "Humanity's global battle with mosquitoes", Health check, BBC World Service
  11. ^ K. Alan Kronstadt, Terrorist Attacks in Mumbai, India, and Implications for U. S. Interests, page 7, Diane Publishing, 2011, ISBN 9781437929539
  12. ^ Aijazuddin Ahmad, Geography of the South Asian Subcontinent: A Critical Approach, page 17, Concept Publishing Company, 2009, ISBN 9788180695681
  13. ^ Ayesha Jalal, Partisans of Allah: Jihad in South Asia, page xiii, Harvard University Press, 2009, ISBN 9780674039070
  14. ^ Superintendent of Documents, United States Government Printing Office, The Subcontinent of South Asia: Afghanistan, Ceylon, India, Nepal and Pakistan, United States Department of State, Public Services Division, 1959
  15. ^ Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged, Merriam-Webster, 2002. Naala idi 11 Marso 2007
  16. ^ Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. 2002. Merriam-Webster. retrieved 11 March 2007.
  17. ^ Oxford English Dictionary 2nd edition, Oxford University Press, 1989
  18. ^ Oxfordrd English Dictionary 2nd edition. 1989. Oxford University Press.
  19. ^ The history of India – By John McLeod
  20. ^ Milton Walter Meyer, South Asia: A Short History of the Subcontinent, pages 1, Adams Littlefield, 1976, ISBN 0-8226-0034-X
  21. ^ Chapman, Graham P. & Baker, Kathleen M., eds. The changing geography of Asia. (ISBN 0-203-03862-2) New York: Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2002; p. 10: "This greater India is well defined in terms of topography; it is the Indian sub-continent, hemmed in by the Himalayas on the north, the Hindu Khush in the west and the Arakanese in the east."
  22. ^ John McLeod, The history of India, page 1, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002, ISBN 0-313-31459-4
  23. ^ "Asia"> Geology and Geography. The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Columbia University Press, 2003: "Asia can be divided into six regions, each possessing distinctive physical, cultural, economic and political characteristics... South Asia (Afghanistan and the nations of the Indian subcontinent) is isolated from the rest of Asia by great mountain barriers."
  24. ^ "Asia" > Geologic history - Tectonic framework. Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 2009: "The paleotectonic evolution of Asia terminated some 50 million years ago as a result of the collision of the Indian subcontinent with Eurasia. Asia’s subsequent neotectonic development has largely disrupted the continent’s preexisting fabric. The first-order neotectonic units of Asia are Stable Asia, the Arabian and Indian cratons, the Alpide plate boundary zone (along which the Arabian and Indian platforms have collided with the Eurasian continental plate), and the island arcs and marginal basins."
  25. ^ Sinvhal, Understanding Earthquake Disasters, page 52, Tata McGraw-Hill Education, 2010, ISBN 978-0-07-014456-9
  26. ^ Harsh K. Gupta, Disaster management, page 85, Universities Press, 2003, ISBN 978-81-7371-456-6
  27. ^ James R. Heirtzler, Indian ocean geology and biostratigraphy, page American Geophysical Union, 1977, ISBN 978-0-87590-208-1
  28. ^ M. Asif Khan, Tectonics of the Nanga Parbat syntaxis and the Western Himalaya, page 375, Geological Society of London, 2000, ISBN 978-1-86239-061-4
  29. ^ Srikrishna Prapnnachari, Concepts in Frame Design, page 152, Srikrishna Prapnnachari, ISBN 978-99929-52-21-4
  30. ^ A. M. Celâl Şengör, Tectonic evolution of the Tethyan Region, Springer, 1989, ISBN 978-0-7923-0067-0
  31. ^ Sushil Mittal and Gene Thursby, Religions of South Asia: An Introduction, page 3, Routledge, 2006, ISBN 9781134593224
  32. ^ John McLeod, The history of India, page 1, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002, ISBN 0-313-31459-4
    Stephen Adolphe Wurm, Peter Mühlhäusler & Darrell T. Tryon, Atlas of languages of intercultural communication in the Pacific, Asia, and the Americas, pages 787, International Council for Philosophy and Humanistic Studies, Published by Walter de Gruyter, 1996, ISBN 3-11-013417-9
    "Indian subcontinent" > Geology and Geography.
    The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Columbia University Press, 2003: "region, S central Asia, comprising the countries of Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh and the Himalayan states of Nepal, and Bhutan. Sri Lanka, an island off the southeastern tip of the Indian peninsula, is often considered a part of the subcontinent."
    Haggett, Peter (2001). Encyclopedia of World Geography (Vol. 1). Marshall Cavendish. p. 2710. ISBN 0-7614-7289-4. 
  33. ^ John R. Lukacs, The People of South Asia: the biological anthropology of India, Pakistan, and Nepal, page 59, Plenum Press, 1984, ISBN 9780306414077
  34. ^ Tatu Vanhanen, Prospects of Democracy: A Study of 172 Countries, page 144, Routledge, 1997, ISBN 9780415144063
  35. ^ a b Desai, Praful B. 2002. Cancer control efforts in the Indian subcontinent. Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology. 32 (Supplement 1): S13-S16. "The Indian subcontinent in South Asia occupies 2.4% of the world land mass and is home to 16.5% of the world population...."
  36. ^ "Indian Subcontinent". Encyclopedia of Modern Asia. Macmillan Reference USA (Gale Group), 2006: "The area is divided between five major nation-states, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, and includes as well the two small nations of Bhutan and the Maldives Republic... The total area can be estimated at 4.4 million square kilometres, or exactly 10 percent of the land surface of Asia... In 2000, the total population was about 22 percent of the world's population and 34 percent of the population of Asia."
  37. ^ "Asia" > Overview. Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 2009: "The Indian subcontinent is home to a vast diversity of peoples, most of whom speak languages from the Indo-Aryan subgroup of the Indo-European family."
  38. ^ "Indian Subcontinent". Encyclopedia of Modern Asia. Macmillan Reference USA (Gale Group), 2006: "The total area can be estimated at 4.4 million square kilometres, or exactly 10 percent of the land surface of Asia... In 2000, the total population was about 22 percent of the world's population and 34 percent of the population of Asia."