Agpakatengnga a bileg

Manipud iti Wikipedia, ti nawaya nga ensiklopedia
Lumaktaw idiay: pagdaliasatan, agbiruk

Kadagiti relasion ti sangalubongan, ti agpakatengnga a bileg ket ti naturay nga estado a saan a kabilegan wenno nalatak a bileg, ngem adda pay met ti dakkel wenno kalalainganna nga impluensia ken sangalubongan a pannakabigbig. Ti konsepto ti "agpakatengnga a bileg" ket manipuden kadagiti taudan ti Europeano a sistema ti estado. Idi naladaw a maika-16 a siglo, ti managpanpanubot iti politika nga Italiano a ni Giovanni Botero ket biningbingayna ti lubong kadagiti tallo a kita ti estado – grandissime (dagiti imperio), mezano (dagiti agpakatengnga a bileg) ken piccoli (dagiti bassit a bileg). Segun kenni Botero,ti mezano wenno agpakatengnga a bileg "...ket addaan iti makaanay a kapigsa ken turay a bukod a makatakder nga awan ti pannakasapul iti tulong manipud kadagiti dadduma."[1]

Pannangipalawag[urnosen | urnosen ti taudan]

Awan ti pakaitunosan nga alagaden a pamay-an no ania dagiti estado ti agpakatengnga a bileg. Adda met dagiti agsuksukisok nga agus-usar iti estadistika ti Dagup ti Nailian a Produkto (Gross National Product wenno GNP) tapno makaala kadagiti listaan dagiti agpakatengnga a bileg iti amin a paset iti lubong. Iti ekonomia, dagiti agpakatengnga a bileg ket kadawyan a dagiti saan a naikeddeng a "dakkel"unay wenno "bassit" unay, uray ania ti pannakaipalawagna. Nupay kasta, ti ekonomia ket saan a kankanayon a banag a panangipalawag. Babaen iti kasisigud a kapanunotan iti termino, ti agpakatengnga a bileg ket ti maysa idi nga addaan iti bassit a grado ti impluensia iti sangalubongan, ngem saan a mangituray iti ania man a maysa a lugar. Nupay kasta, daytoy a panagusar ket saan nga unibersal, ken adda met dagiti dadduma a mangipalawag ti agpakatengnga a bileg a manginayon kadagiti pagilian a maikeddeng a kas dagiti rehional a bileg.

Segun kadagiti kademia iti Unibersidad ti Leicester ken Unibersidad ti Nottingham;

Ti kasasaad ti agpakatengnga a bileg ket kadawyan a nailasin iti maysa wenno kadagiti dua a waya. Ti tradisional ken kaaduan a waya ket ti panangitipon ti kriteria ti kritikal a pannakabagi ken material tapno mairanggo dagiti estado segun kadagiti relatibo a kapabilidadda. Gapu ta agdumaduma dagitikapabilidad dagiti pagilian, maikategoriada a kas dagiti kabilegan (wenno dagitinalatak a bileg), dagiti agpakatengnga a bileg wenno dagiti bassit a bileg. Iti kaudian, daytoy ket mabalin a maisalumina ti maikadua a pamay-an para iti pannagilasin ti kasasaad ti agpakatengnga a bileg babaen ti panangipatengnga ti isip kadagiti gupit ti panagkukua. Daytoy ket mangipuesto a dagiti agpakatengnga a bileg ket mabalinda a maisalunima kadagiti nalatak a bileg ken dagiti bassit a bileg gapu iti panagkukuada iti ganganaet nga anuroten – dagiti agpakatengnga a bileg ket makalada iti bukodda a lugar para iti kabukbukodanda babaen ti panagsurot iti akikid a sakup ken kadagiti naisangayan a kita ti panagkayat ti ganganaet nga annuroten. Iti daytoy a waya, dagiti agpakatengnga a bileg ket dagiti pagilian nga ti relatibo a kalaingda iti diplomasia iti serbisio ti sangalubongan a kappia ken talinaay. Isuda a dua a pangrukod ket maisuppiatan ekn kontrobersia, ngem ti tradisional a pmay-an ti kaadu ket naipakitan a problematiko ngem ti pamay-an ti panagkukua.

Segun kenni Eduard Jordaan ti Singapore Management University;

Amin dagiti agpakatengnga a bileg ket mangipakita panagkukua iti ganganaet nga annuroten a mangtalinaay ken mangilihetimado ti uglobal nga urnos, kadawyan babaen ti multilateral ken dagiti inisiatibo ti panagtitinnulong. Nupay kasta, dagiti rumrummuar ken dagiti tradisional nga agpakatengnga a bileg ket mabalinda a maisalunima kadagiti termino iti bukodda a panangimpluensia iti tunggal maysa ken dagiti panaggigiddiatda iti panagkukua. Iti panangaramid dayta, dagiti tradisional nga agpakatengnga a bileg ken nabaknangda, natalinaay, egalitariano, sosial a demokratiko ken saan a rehional nga impluensial. Iti panagkukua,mangipakitada ti nakapsot ken agdumaduma a rikna iti rehional nga orientasion, agar-aramid kadagiti identidad a naisangayan manipud kadagiti nabileg nga estado kadagiti bukodda a rehion ken mangidaton kadagiti magustuan a konsesion kadagiti presion para iti reporma ti sangalubongan. No maigiddiat dagiti rumrummuar nga agpakatengnga a bileg, isuda ket semi-periperal, di-egalitariano iti material ken dagiti kaudian a demokratisado nga estado a mangipakita ti adu a rehional nga impluensia ken bukod a pannakigimong. Iti panagkukua, kaykayatda iti repormista ken saan a radikal a panagbaliw iti lubong, mangipakita ti napigsa a rehional nga orientasion ken agkaykayat iti rehional nga integrasion ngem agbirbiruk pay nga agramid kadagiti naisangayan nga identidad manipud kadagiti nakapsot nga estado iti bukodda a rehion.[2]

Listaan dagiti agpakatengnga a bileg[urnosen | urnosen ti taudan]

Kas met dagiti nalatak a bileg, awan dagiti agkaykaysa a pakaitunosan kadagiti turay no ania dagiti pagilian a maikeddenga a kas dagiti agpakatengnga a bileg. Dagiti listaan ket masansan a suheto ti adu a debato ken matarawidwidan a mangiyasping kadagiti dakkel a pagilian (kas ti Brasil) kadagiti relatibo a bassit a pagilian (kas ti Norwega).[3] Nalawag met a saan amin dagiti agpakatengnga a bileg ket agpapadada iti kasasaad; adda met dagiti maikeddeng a rehional a bileg ken dagiti miembro ti G20 (ka ti Australia), bayat a dagiti dadduma ket nalakda amaikeddeng a kas dagiti bassit a bileg (kas ti Republika a Tseka). Adda met dagiti dakdakkel nga agpakatengnga a bileg ket agpaelda pay kadagiti importante a papel iti Nagkaykaysa a Pagpagilian ken dagiti dadduma pay a sangalubongan a gunglo a kas ti WTO.

Ti sumaganad a listaan dagiti pagilian, no man iti napalabas wenno iti agdamaw, ket naikeddengda a dagiti agpakatengnga a bileg babaen dagiti kaademia wenno dagiti sabali nga eksperto:

Dagiti nagibasaran[urnosen | urnosen ti taudan]

  1. ^ Rudd K (2006) Making Australia a force for good, Labor eHerald Naarkibo idi Hunio 27, 2007 iti Wayback Machine
  2. ^ a b Jordaan E (2003) The concept of a middle power in international relations, informaworld
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Solomon S (1997) South African Foreign Policy and Middle Power Leadership, ISS
  4. ^ a b c Wurst J (2006) Middle Powers Initiative Briefing Paper, GSI Naarkibo idi Hunio 14, 2007 iti Wayback Machine
  5. ^ a b Cooper AF (1997) Niche Diplomacy – Middle Powers after the Cold War, palgrave
  6. ^ a b c d Bernard Wood, 'Towards North-South Middle Power Coalitions', in Middle Power Internationalism: The North-South Dimension, edited by Cranford Pratt (Montreal, McGill-Queen's University Press, 1990).
  7. ^ a b Tobias Harris, 'Japan Accepts its "Middle-Power" Fate'. Far Eastern Economic Review Vol. 171, No. 6 (2008), p. 45: 'Japan is settling into a position as a middle power in Asia, sitting uneasily between the U.S., its security ally, and China, its most important economic partner. In this it finds itself in a situation similar to Australia, India, South Korea and the members of Asean.'
  8. ^ a b Yasmi Adriansyah, 'Questioning Indonesia's place in the world', Asia Times (20 Septiembre 2011): 'Countries often categorized as middle power (MP) include Australia, Canada and Japan. The reasons for this categorization are the nations' advanced political-economic stature as well as their significant contribution to international cooperation and development. India and Brazil have recently become considered middle powers because of their rise in the global arena—particularly with the emerging notion of BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China).'
  9. ^ a b c d Buzan, Barry (2004). The United States and the Great Powers. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Polity Press. p. 71. ISBN 0-7456-3375-7. 
  10. ^ Hazleton WA (2005) Middle Power Bandwagoning? Australia's Security Relationship with the United States, allacademic
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i demosEUROPA – Centre for European Strategy Golden Age of Middle Powers?, Adam Balcer, Enero 2012
  12. ^ a b Inoguchi K (2002) The UN Disarmament Conference in Kyote Naarkibo idi Septiembre 29, 2007 iti Wayback Machine
  13. ^ Caplan G (2006) From Rwanda to Darfur: Lessons learned?, SudanTribune
  14. ^ a b Heine J (2006) On the Manner of Practising the New Diplomacy, ISN Naarkibo idi Oktubre 7, 2007 iti Wayback Machine
  15. ^ a b Gladys Lechini, Middle Powers: IBSA and the New South-South Cooperation. NACLA Report on the Americas, Vol. 40, No. 5 (2007): 28-33: 'Today, a new, more selective South-South cooperation has appeared, bringing some hope to the people of our regions. The trilateral alliance known as the India, Brazil, and South Africa Dialogue Forum, or IBSA, exemplifies the trend … The three member countries face the same problems and have similar interests. All three consider themselves "middle powers" and leaders of their respective regions, yet they have also been subject to pressures from the North.'
  16. ^ Daniel Flemes, Emerging Middle Powers' Soft Balancing Strategy: State and Perspective of the IBSA Dialogue Forum. Hamburg: GIGA, 2007.
  17. ^ a b c d Behringer RM (2005) Middle Power Leadership on the Human Security Agenda, SAGE
  18. ^ Crosby AD (1997) A Middle-Power Military in Alliance: Canada and NORAD, JSTOR
  19. ^ Petersen K (2003) Quest to Reify Canada as a Middle Power, Dissident Voice
  20. ^ "THE UN DISARMAMENT CONFERENCE IN KYOTO". disarm.emb-japan.go.jp. Naiyarkibo manipud iti ti kasisigud idi 16 Enero 2013. Naala idi 13 Nobiembre 2015. 
  21. ^ a b c d Pratt C (1990) Middle Power Internationalism, MQUP
  22. ^ a b c d Andrew F. Cooper, Agata Antkiewicz and Timothy M. Shaw, 'Lessons from/for BRICSAM about South-North Relations at the Start of the 21st Century: Economic Size Trumps All Else?', International Studies Review, Vol. 9, No. 4 (Winter, 2007), pp. 675, 687.
  23. ^ a b Ploughshares Monitor (1997) Scrapping the Bomb: The role of middle power countries
  24. ^ GILLEY, BRUCE (Septiembre 10, 2012). "The Rise of the Middle Powers". The New York Times Company. p. 1. Naala idi 14 Marso 2015. 
  25. ^ Thanos Veremēs (1997)The Military in greek Politics "Black Rose Books"
  26. ^ Higgott RA, Cooper AF (1990) Middle Power Leadership and Coalition Building
  27. ^ a b Jonathan H. Ping, Middle Power Statecraft: Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Asia Pacific (Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing, 2005).
  28. ^ Anoushiravan Ehteshami and Raymond Hinnesbusch, Syria and Iran: Middle Power in a Penetrated Regional System (London: Routledge, 1997).
  29. ^ Samhat, Nayef H. (2000). "Middle Powers and American Foreign Policy: Lessons for Irano-U.S. Relations". Policy Studies Journal. 28 (1): 11–26. 
  30. ^ Ahouie M (2004) Iran Analysis Quarterly, MIT
  31. ^ Foreign Affairs Committee (2006) Iran
  32. ^ www.lrb.co.uk
  33. ^ www.acronym.org.uk
  34. ^ LSE: Middle East Centre The New Politics of Intervention of Gulf Arab States, April 2015
  35. ^ a b Mace G, Belanger L (1999) The Americas in Transition: The Contours of Regionalism (p 153)
  36. ^ Kim R. Nossal and Richard Stubbs, 'Mahathir's Malaysia: An Emerging Middle Power?' in Niche Diplomacy: Middle Powers After the Cold War, edited by Andrew F. Cooper (London: Macmillan, 1997).
  37. ^ Louis Belanger and Gordon Mace, 'Middle Powers and Regionalism in the Americas: The Cases of Argentina and Mexico', in Niche Diplomacy: Middle Powers After the Cold War, edited by Andrew F. Cooper (London: Macmillan, 1997).
  38. ^ a b Pierre G. Goad, 'Middle Powers to the Rescue?', Far Eastern Economic Review, Vol. 163, No. 24 (2000), p. 69.
  39. ^ Pellicer O (2006) Mexico – a Reluctant Middle Power?, FES
  40. ^ Politics and Power in the Maghreb, Michael J. Willis (2012)
  41. ^ Oman: A Unique Foreign Policy Produces a Key Player in Middle Eastern and Global Diplomacy, Joseph A. Kechichian
  42. ^ Barry Buzan (2004). The United States and the great powers: world politics in the twenty-first century. Polity. pp. 71, 99. ISBN 978-0-7456-3374-9. Naala idi 27 Disiembre 2011. 
  43. ^ Routledge Handbook of Diplomacy and Statecraft, B.J.C. McKercher (2012), Page 189
  44. ^ a b c d e Jonathan H. Ping Middle Power Statecraft (p 104)
  45. ^ a b Spero, Joshua (2004). Bridging the European Divide. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 206. ISBN 978-0-7425-3553-4. 
  46. ^ Kirton J (2006) Harper’s Foreign Policy Success?
  47. ^ a b according to Yves Lacoste, Géopolitique, Larousse, 2009,p. 134, both Spain and Portugal exert a real influence in Africa and in the Americas.
  48. ^ Cooper, Andrew F. "Middle Powers: Squeezed out or Adaptive?". Public Diplomacy Magazine. Naala idi 12 Marso 2015. 
  49. ^ Kamrava, Mehran. "Mediation and Qatari Foreign Policy" (PDF). Naala idi 12 Marso 2015. 
  50. ^ Peter Vale, 'South Africa: Understanding the Upstairs and the Downstairs', in Niche Diplomacy: Middle Powers After the Cold War, edited by Andrew F. Cooper (London: Macmillan, 1997).
  51. ^ Janis Van Der Westhuizen, 'South Africa's Emergence as a Middle Power', Third World Quarterly, Vol. 19, No. 3 (1998), pp. 435-455.
  52. ^ Pfister R (2006) The Apartheid Republuc and African States, H-Net
  53. ^ Eduard Jordaan, 'Barking at the Big Dogs: South Africa's Foreign Policy Towards the Middle East', Round Table, Vol. 97, No. 397 (2008), pp. 547-549.
  54. ^ Flemes, Daniel, Emerging Middle Powers' Soft Balancing Strategy: State and Perspectives of the IBSA Dialogue Forum (August 1, 2007). GIGA Working Paper No. 57. doi:10.2139/ssrn.1007692
  55. ^ Armstrong DF (1997) South Korea's foreign policy in the post-Cold War era: A middle power perspective
  56. ^ Gilbert Rozman, 'South Korea and Sino-Japanese Rivalry: A Middle Power's Options Within the East Asia Core Triangle', Pacific Review, Vol. 20, No. 2 (2007), pp. 197-220.
  57. ^ Woosang Kim, 'Korea as a Middle Power in Northeast Asian Security, in The United States and Northeast Asia: Debates, Issues, and New Order, edited by G. John Ikenbgerry and Chung-in Moon (Lantham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2008).
  58. ^ Sheridan, Greg (27 Nobiembre 2008). "The plucky country and the lucky country draw closer". The Australian. 
  59. ^ Rudengren J, Gisle P, Brann K (1995) Middle Power Clout: Sweden And The Development Banks
  60. ^ Meltem Myftyler and Myberra Yyksel, 'Turkey: A Middle Power in the New Order', in Niche Diplomacy: Middle Powers After the Cold War, edited by Andrew F. Cooper (London: Macmillan, 1997).
  61. ^ Laipson, Ellen (3 Septiembre 2014). "The UAE and Egypt's New Frontier in Libya". The National Interest. Naala idi 26 Oktubre 2014. 
  62. ^ Evans, Gareth (29 Hunio 2011). "Middle Power Diplomacy". Naala idi 26 Oktubre 2014. 

Adu pay a mabasbasa[urnosen | urnosen ti taudan]

Dagiti silpo ti ruar[urnosen | urnosen ti taudan]